What can cause damage to the LEDs?

What can cause damage of LED?


The basic and most frequent reason of damages of the electroluminescent diodes is overheated connector. Excessive heat sources can be energizing too high power supply current value, too high environment temperature or combination of these factors. Slight or short-​term overheat of the structure causes partial damage of material and light weakness. Following cycles, when LED diode is being treated in very high temperature, are summing up resulting in the absolute destruction of the crystal. LED diode also can be charged by many times the peak current limit value, however the average value of current should be located within the limits approved by manufacturers. Factor which causes an increase of LED diode temperature may be too poor heat transfer to the radiator consequential from inappropriate montage of diode based on inaccurate adhesion of diode’s housing heating contact to the ground or ground to radiator. Moreover, the heat sink may not indicate sufficiently high efficiency of heat transfer to the environment because of the air flow limit either too high temperature of the reduced air flow in environment. Overheat of radiator may be caused by its impurity or closure in the housing. Wrong pins soldering can also be a threat to the LED diodes.

Irreversible damage to the diode can be caused by applying a voltage in the reverse direction with a value greater than the voltage barrier. In electroluminescent diodes voltage which is comparable to the threshold voltage for conduction. That is why, connection to the power supply with opposite direction is very dangerous for LED diodes. Some copies of the diodes are factory-​equipped with protection against overload and reverse connection, although such solution is not popular. Damage of LED may be also caused by the presence of surge.
Diodes are optoelectronic elements, which can be easily damaged mechanically. In spite of the fact that diodes are monolithic objects and do not possess mobile elements nor subject to vibration, its structure is sensitive to the effects of high mechanical force. Lead wires to the crystal are made from wire with a cross-​section of the order of tenths of a millimeter square, that can be easily broken. Material of lens covering the diode is chosen due to the high efficiency of light emission not because of durability which may lead to damages. Under the influence of the force, shining crystal can separate from the ground, lose thermal contact and overheat.